Business Administration Education Guide

Friday, August 01, 2008

How to Take the SAT Test: Study Tips

(reprinted from

As with any test, there are strategies you can use on the SAT Reasoning Test to ensure you finish in the allotted time and with the best possible score. Here are a few tips related to the three main areas of the SAT: the writing portion, the critical reading portion, and the mathematics portion.

The writing portion

The essay:
  • Use a pencil, because essays written in ink are given a score of zero.
  • Your assigned topic will take the form of an issue presented in a passage, so you will not be able to plan out your response beforehand -- but you can practice organizing and outlining arguments.
  • Read the entire assignment. The goal is to be thorough, thoughtful and organized, and all of the information given to you can help.
  • Organize the essay any way that makes sense to you, as long as you can make a point and convincingly back it up with examples. One option is to follow the 5-paragraph essay style, though the style itself won't earn any points.
  • Plan your time well. Spend the first few minutes thinking about your main point and writing a rough outline. Come up with your overall statement and 1-3 supporting points. Organize your thoughts on how you will use each point to support your main idea.
  • When writing, stick to your outline, stay focused on your main statement, and take the time to thoroughly explain the points you're making -- but keep an eye on the clock, because you want to save some time for review.
  • Spend the last few minutes reviewing what you've written. Make sure it makes sense, and make any changes you need to. If it reads well to you, chances are it will read well to the reviewers.

Multiple choice:

  • Read the instructions carefully to make sure you completely understand the question.
  • Eliminate the answers you know are wrong first. If you're still not sure, make an educated guess from the remaining ones.

The critical reading portion

Multiple choice:

  • Answer the sentence completion questions first, since they are easier than the reading questions. The sentence completions increase in difficulty if you do them in order.
  • Read the passages carefully. All the information you need to answer the question is supplied, so don't be fooled by answers that sound right but aren't supported by the reading.
  • Don't jump from passage to passage. These questions don't increase in difficulty, so it's better to answer them one passage at a time.
  • Mark the questions you skip in your test booklet, so you can go back to them later.
  • Leave it blank, don't guess, if you have no idea what the answer is and you can't eliminate any choices. Wrong answers subtract 1/4 of a point, while blank answers don't add or subtract anything.

The mathematics portion

Student-generated (grid-in):

  • Do practice problems online.
  • Formulas are provided in the test booklet, so you don't have to try to memorize them.
  • Read each question carefully, looking for key words that indicate what the problem is asking. Is the answer a percentage? An angle? The complement of an angle?
  • Draw a sketch of the problem if you need to, and use the booklet for scratch work.
  • All figures are drawn to scale unless otherwise indicated. The test won't try to trick you with inaccurate drawings.

Multiple choice:

  • Look at the answer choices before taking the time to figure it out. One might make itself obvious to you right away.
  • Eliminate wrong answers by trying them in the question -- but don't do this for every problem, as it takes up time.
(See source article)

Related articles:

How to Take the SAT Test: Overview

How to Take the SAT Test: Sample Questions

How to Take the SAT Test: Dates and Schedule

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Wednesday, July 23, 2008

Types of Accounting

The field of accounting is divided into four main parts: public accounting, management accounting, governmental accounting, and internal auditing, each with different accounting specialties. Knowing the differences, and what functions each serves, is helpful to anyone pursuing a degree or career in accounting.

Public accounting

Public accounting, is also called "assurance services," and is the broadest, most basic type of accounting. Public accountants work for a client, whether an individuals, a private business, a public firm, a government agency, or a nonprofit organization. A public accounting business can consist of one accountant, several accountants working in partnership, or hundreds of accountants comprising a large accounting firm.

Public accountants carry out many duties ranging from simple tax advice and preparation for businesses and individuals, to consultations in the areas of employee reimbursement and accounting system logistics and design. External auditing is another responsibility taken on by public accountants who review their clients' finance records, making sure statements have been handled correctly before investors and finance authorities. These types of accountants are primarily handling historical financial data, discovering problems or errors in retrospect.

Within public accounting is the area of forensic accounting. Accountants in forensic accounting track white-collar crimes such as securities fraud, money laundering, embezzlement, and other questionable or illegal financial activities by analysing historical financial data. Forensic accountants are equipped with law knowledge as well as accounting skills, often working with law enforcement and lawyers or appearing as expert witness in trials.

Also under the umbrella of public accounting are Certified Public Accountants (CPAs), though CPAs are also employed in the private sector. The designation of CPA is applied to public accountants (PAs) who have become nationally certified by passing the Uniform Certified Public Accountant Examination, in addition to being licensed by their state.

Management accounting

Management accountants are also called cost accountants, private accountants, or industrial or corporate accountants. This type of accountant is employed by a business or agency rather than being available to the general public; their primary function is to record and analyze the company's financial data. This type of accountant uses private financial data to provide services such as asset management, performance evaluation, budgeting and cost management. They are often consulted prior to the release of new products, and can also prepare the company's financial data for tax authorities and investors. Whereas public accountants analyse historical data, management accountants look at current data as well, in order to plan for the future.

Also employed in the private sector are Certified Public Accountants, who can hold such positions as Chief Financial Officer (CFO) or Chief Executive Officer (CEO), provided they are well-rounded in business practice.

Governmental accounting

Governmental accounting is related to public accounting, but it is applied to government agencies and private businesses regulated by the government. Accountants in the field of governmental accounting render public accounting services for these agencies, ensuring financial practices are carried out legally. Accountants employed by the Federal Government can be found in the IRS, as well as in budgeting and asset management departments.

Internal auditing

Internal auditing accountants analyze financial management practices for their own company, watching for financial mismanagement, waste and fraud. They evaluate the performance of the company's management and budgeting operations for efficiency as well as compliance to laws and regulations. Internal auditing accountants may specialize in areas such as information technology auditing, environmental auditing and compliance auditing.

Different accounting job titles

Enrolled agent (EA)

Enrolled agents are usually accountants, but not necessarily. EAs represent taxpayers before the IRS, and must pass an IRS-administered exam before being allowed to practice. This is a popular area of accounting for new entrants in the field.


Though bookkeeping is an entry-level position within the field of accounting, it is one of the most valuable accounting services, because all other data depends on the accuracy of bookkeepers' work. Bookkeepers record a company's financial business transactions, keeping all financial data in organized ledgers, which they check and update regularly. They are responsible for balancing these ledgers against the company's assets, making sure every dollar is accounted for.

Accounting Clerk

A clerk is another entry-level accountant whose role is to help maintain ledgers and prepare financial reports, sending financial data to the management. This type of accounting can be repetitive and mundane, but is useful for learning the processes of a company's accounting department. The clerk's role is a good launching pad for higher accounting positions.

Accounting Director

Accounting directors are a step above entry-level accounting positions, as they manage and oversee bookkeepers, clerks and lower accountants. They handle payroll, cost accounting and other administrative tasks, reporting to higher management within the accounting department.

Controller (or Comptroller)

This job title refers to a management-level accountant who oversees the accounting activities within an organization. These accountants supervise the company's internal accounting systems, ensuring they function properly, and is responsible for creating and enacting policies and practices within the accounting department. The controller reports to the Chief Financial Officer.

Chief Financial Officer (CFO)

The CFO is a high-level accountant who analyzes broad-scale financial risks within a business or firm. The CFO receives data handed up from the business's accounting department, using it to assess the wisdom of future financial undertakings on a company-wide level. They often report their financial findings to the company's highest management. The CFO is typically part of a firm's board of directors, reporting directly to the CEO.

See source article, Types of Accounting

Other articles:

Uncle Sam is hiring

Up and coming careers in the next 10 years

Employers hiring graduates

Business administration careers

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Monday, March 17, 2008

Five ways to find a good job even if it is not your dream job

Trying to find a source of income, but worried you'll end up in a dead-end job you hate? Here are five quick tips to making sure your job doesn't ruin your life.
  1. Find a job that will make you happy, or at least content. Your tastes will change over time, and you'll likely discover something you like as you gain more experience.
  2. Don't take a job just for the money. Money really doesn't buy happiness, but money earned doing something you love almost can.
  3. Don't take a job just because you are desperate. Especially in tough economic times, it can be easy to fall into a "temporary" rut that turns into an unfulfilling career. Take the extra time to find a job you can see yourself in.
  4. Don't take a job you are extremely overqualified for UNLESS it will make you happy. This goes back to getting stuck in a temporary rut.
  5. If you are under qualified for your dream job – go back to college and get the training you need, it is worth it!
More resources:
Job Interview Tips
Up-and-Coming Careers for the Next 10 Years
Find Jobs in Los Angeles

Monday, February 04, 2008

Yahoo Microsoft, Google, AOL - The Web Wars

If you are an obsessed Internet nerd like me you have already heard, read, debated and theorized about the possibility of a Microsoft / Yahoo merger. There are a lot of people who do not want to see a Yahoo/ Microsoft merger, but the most influential “Hell No! That can't go” is none other than Google's chief executive Eric Schmidt. So opposed to the deal was he, that he immediately raised the anti competitive war flag and even called Yahoo CEO Jerry Yang to offer his company's help in any and all effort to squash Microsoft unsolicited $44.6 billion bid for Yahoo.

Let The Games Begin!

What sort of help could Google offer? Lets start with huge amounts of lucrative deals to sell advertising on Yahoo’s search results. It's extremely unlikely that Google could buy Yahoo outright, for antitrust reasons. However, Google could offer a long-term guarantee for advertising revenue on Yahoo’s search pages. This would enable Yahoo with the finances it needs to stay competitive and give some of that money back to shareholders in the form of a share buyback or special dividend (i.e. shareholders would be less likely to say a hardy F you and ditch Yahoo.)

Here is the problem for Google – It is said that Yahoo hates Google. Is that hate strong enough for Yahoo to disregard any Google offers and finally accept a partnership for MicroSurf? Meanwhile AOL is preparing to dump Netscape which is the daddy who gave birth to Internet surfing popularity. Where do they stand in all this?

A lot of people disagreed with Yahoo when they decided to take on Google and fight fire with fire in search engine competition. Industry people felt that Yahoo should have partnered up with other companies so that Yahoo could concentrate on brand advertising, where it had been the leader. Taking that approach would have limited their presence in search advertising and probably would have given Yahoo a much smaller role in the future – which is now today. But that is neither here nor there. As it stands Yahoo has a link fence surrounding them with a couple of very dangerous corporate dogs salivating at the prospect of biting off a rather nice chunk of Yahoo's limping behind.

But what does it all mean and why is it such a big deal?

If Microsoft buys Yahoo, Microsoft will have a dominance in search engine marketing and advertising that would surpass Google. The buy out will take Yahoo's loyal readers, subscribers, searchers and all over to Microsoft – even though they continue to use Yahoo applications. Than again, if Microsoft was to buy Yahoo, would MS intergrade Yahoo's email with Hotmail?

The challenges, the advantages and the integration is much bigger than just email use. If Microsoft did buy Yahoo, Microsoft would acquire a much larger set of online services, a better advertising network, and can better utilize the people who know how to build, brand, and market web products and services that people actually want and use. Yahoo would suddenly be part of an organization with an even more diversified revenue source.

Microsoft takes the long-term view approach and pours money into projects that takes years to turn a profit. One of these long-term projects, hopes and goals is web presence. They say they are dedicated, serious and they are a force that cannot be stopped. However, there are days when I seriously doubt that belief. Management from both Yahoo and Microsoft have not presented a concrete vision of where and how the companies should tackle web presence. That lack of vision leaves us, the users and clients asking if they combine, will they finally be able to create a solid vision that will build loyalty and support and can they follow through with it?

When Microsoft announced that they had made a bid offering, Yahoo stocks soared while Google's dropped. Microsoft has the resources to pay for the development that Yahoo does not. The combination of Microsoft and Yahoo would have the second largest advertising network and a vast array of sites on which to place its own ads. But, where does AOL stand in all of this?

Why so quiet?

The Microsoft's bid revived gossip about AOL's online advertising goals. The main question on mouse click gossip was -- is AOL a target for acquisition and will Google consider purchasing part or all of AOL's (advertising network) Platform A in an effort to balance a potential Yahoo / Microsoft combination?

In November 2007, Time Warner chief executive Jeffrey Bewkes said he would consider selling parts of the company to enhance its "strategic advantage." The Time Warner / AOL merger of 2001 has never lived up to it's promises of grander times and as a direct result, the company stocks have suffered. However, other than yet anther AOL purchased of yet anther technology based media business – this time Goowy Media on February 3rd, 2008, AOL has been strangely quiet. Time Warner has never said that AOL is for sale, but there has been rampant speculation for years.

There is a lot of money and Internet power at stake and if we the pubic could watch the inside corporate drama of all four companies (or at least the 3 biggies) to see how this will all play out it would be better than any reality tv show in the history of television. Better than any celebrity reality tv cat fight and better than any MTV Real Life boy band look-a-like dawg fight. This is what would bring me back in front of the television.

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Friday, January 11, 2008

Different types of Information Technology Careers

Computer CareersBecause there are so many different types of computer careers, skills and specializations the list is a general umbrella list of computer careers.

Database Administrator is responsible for the planning, implementation, configuration, and administration of relational database management systems.

Database Analyst is responsible for designing and developing an organization's data flow model and database architecture (set up).

Hardware Engineer is responsible for the specification and design of a computer and communication hardware workings.

Help Desk Technician is responsible primarily for supporting end-user software applications in person and on the telephone.

Information Systems Manager is responsible for managing an organization's overall internal information technology architecture (set up). IS managers (also called IT managers, for Information Technology) are responsible for the day-to-day management of an organization's information systems, including databases, operating systems, networks, technical support, and computers and server maintenance.

Internetworking Engineer (also called an Internet Engineer) for short is responsible for managing and maintaining the networking architecture for an organization's web site and Wide Area Network (WAN) connectivity.

Multimedia Developer is responsible for developing quality media content for the World Wide Web. Multimedia developers use programming and development tools like Macromedia Flash and Dreamweaver to build interactive content for a computer-based training module, software demo or for consumers.

Network Administrator are responsible for managing and maintaining an organization's Local Area Network (LAN).

Network Engineer are responsible for the planning, design, and implementation of Local and Wide Area Networks (LANs and WANs).

Network Security Analyst are responsible for designing, implementing and maintaining an organization's network and computer security policies.

PC Support Specialist are responsible for assisting end-users, either remotely or in person, with personal computer maintenance, troubleshooting, and management.

Programmer/Analyst are responsible for designing and implementing computer information systems, and for using computer programming languages to write software applications for those systems.

Programmer are responsible for developing computer programs which allow end-users to interface directly with computer operating systems and hardware.

Software Engineer are responsible for designing and programming large-scale computer systems and applications.

Systems Analyst are responsible for researching, planning and recommending software and systems choices to meet an organization's business requirements.

System Administrator are responsible for managing an organization's computer and operating systems.

Technical Writers are responsible for authoring hardware and software documentation either for an organization's internal computer systems or for third-party vendors.

Web Programmers are responsible for designing and developing applications and scripts for the World Wide Web.

Webmasters are responsible for the implementation and administration of a World Wide Web site.

Ten Hot Careers For The Future

Wednesday, January 09, 2008

Wikipedia Moves To San Francisco

St. Petersburg, Florida is losing to the west coast. Having just returned from the west coast of Florid I can't really blame them. As I drove to different cities on the west coast I often found it difficult to locate wifi services. There are not any major technology corporations that can help Wikipedia move forward.

San Francisco has remained one of the biggies for the high-tech economy which was the reason Florence Devouard, chair of the Wikimedia Foundation listed as the primary reason behind the relocation.

"San Francisco is the center of high-tech in the United States and will give the foundation access to a rich array of resources," said Florence Devouard.

While Wikimedia Foundation's goal is to provide free online information, their press release stated that the valuable resources include “best-in-breed online talent.” The statement hints at the notion they are seeking to increase their staff from six full-time employees by searching Bay area 'top-tier universities'.

Monday, December 17, 2007

What you can do with Internet Explorer 7

Internet Explorer 7 has some new Google like options. If you don't like the way it looks you can change it. They also offer a few new working tips as well. With the new 7 which work for both Windows XP and Windows Vista, you can now build your own search bar engine, control how pages are printed and navigate a little easier using keyboard shortcuts. The tweaking ranges from easy to advanced – but a very stern word of warning must be given -- If you're unfamiliar with Registry editing don't mess with it. As a g33k friend to do it for you.

From Computerworld

1. Add your own search engine to IE

IE (Internet Explorer) 7 comes with a variety of built-in search providers you can choose from the Search Bar in the browser's upper right-hand corner. It's easy to add more by clicking the down arrow on the far right of the bar, choosing Find More Providers and then adding them from the page that appears.

But you're not stuck with the list of search providers (also called engines) that Microsoft supplies. You can build your own search engine and use it in IE's Search Bar to search through any site, no matter where you are on the Internet.

Click here for more information

3. Get multiple tabs under control

Anyone who's tried tabbed browsing knows it's vastly superior to the old way of browsing, with a separate window for each Web site you're looking at. But once you get going, it's easy to get lost in a sea of tabs.

Click here for more information

6. Get around IE fast with keyboard shortcuts

Mousing and clicking in IE can slow you down. A much better bet is to use keyboard shortcuts. The following tables list some of the most useful ones.

Find a word or phrase Ctrl-F

Zoom In Ctrl-+ (Ctrl and the plus sign)

Refresh the current page Ctrl-R or F5

Open a new tab Ctrl-T

Click here for more information

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